This study is carried out by the following institutions:

Logo Rocardo-AEA

Ricardo-AEA is a leading energy and climate change consultancy, delivering visionary, integrated
environmental solutions worldwide. It assists Government with evidence-based policy development
and develops solutions to environmental challenges to improve organisational performance. Its staff
help the public and private sectors respond to both the challenges and the opportunities created by
the drive towards climate change reduction, sustainability, energy and climate change, air and water
quality, resource efficiency, sustainable transport, innovation and knowledge transfer, risk
management and due diligence. Ricardo-AEA is a key advisor to United Kingdom (UK), United States
(US) and European Union (EU) environmental directorates.
Ricardo-AEA has over 40 years’ heritage in successfully winning and delivering public and private
programmes in multi-disciplinary research, technology transfer, commercialisation, communications,
policy support, knowledge management, capacity-building and both stakeholder and network
management. Successful in leading and delivering major multi-partner trans-national framework
collaborations, Ricardo-AEA operates to PRINCE2 project management methodologies and is
accredited to ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 quality certification standards.

ISI Logo

The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI analyzes the origins and impacts of innovations. We research the short- and long-term developments of innovation processes and the impacts of new technologies and services on society. On this basis, we are able to provide our clients from industry, politics and science with recommendations for action and perspectives for key decisions. Our expertise is founded on our scientific competence as well as an interdisciplinary and systemic research approach.


In 2013, a merger between DNV (Det Norske Veritas) and GL (Germanischer Lloyd) took place.
Driven by our purpose of safeguarding life, property and the environment, DNV GL enables
organisations to advance the safety and sustainability of their business. Operating in more than 100
countries, our 16,000 professionals are dedicated to helping our customers in the maritime, oil and
gas, energy and other industries to make the world safer, smarter and greener.
Under the new brand, “DNV GL – Energy,” lays a rich heritage of five well-known entities: DNV, GL,
KEMA, Garrad Hassan and GL Renewables Certification. DNV GL - Energy is headquartered in
Arnhem, the Netherlands, with major offices throughout Europe, North America and China as well as
Asia-Pacific, Latin-America and the Middle East. Our 3000 energy experts operate in more than 30
countries, specialising in providing world-class, innovative solutions in the fields of business &
technical advisory, testing, inspections and certification, risk management, and verification. As an
objective and impartial knowledge-based company, DNV GL – Energy advises and support
organisations along the energy value chain: generators, transmission system operators, distribution
network companies, retail energy suppliers, and end-users of energy, equipment manufacturers,


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